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CNC machining tool damage reasons and solutions

2022/07/26

A CNC machine tool is a computer-controlled high precision automation equipment, its main use of cutting tools to repeat the pattern of accurate feed movement. CNC machining tools are usually used in the manufacture of parts requiring high precision and accuracy. Once the NC machining tool is damaged, it will cause the tool to lose the ability to cut the workpiece material, so that the precision of the machining parts can not be even completed as scheduled. The following will detail the CNC machining tool damage causes and solutions.

 

CNC machining tool damage is the failure and gradual failure of cutting tools due to conventional operation. Every tool experiences slight wear and tear at some point in its life cycle. However, the damaged condition of the cutting tool will have a bad effect on the workpiece, so avoiding the damage of the cutting tool is very important to achieve the best performance of the end mill. CNC machining tool damage can also lead to equipment failure, resulting in serious damage, rework, and parts scrap.

 

In order to prolong the life of a CNC machining tool, it is key to identify and mitigate the signs of tool damage. Both thermal stress and mechanical stress can cause tool damage in CNC machining, and heat and wear are the main reasons. Learning how to identify the most common types of CNC machining tool damage and their causes can help mechanics solve problems quickly and extend tool life.


 

CNC machining tool damage reasons and solutions


CNC machining tool damage surface peeling

 

For brittle CNC machining tools, hard alloy, porcelain, and other brittle materials, due to the surface structure defects or potential cracks or welding, grinding, and another surface residual stress, it is easy to produce the processing tool surface under alternating contact stress when the peeling condition. Cutting tool peeling may occur on the front and back cutting surfaces. The stripping material is a flake and the stripping area is large. The coating tool may peel off. If the peeling is light, the machining tool can continue to work, while if the peeling is serious, it will lose its cutting ability.

 

Plastic deformation of the cutting part

 

Some CNC machining tools of steel and high-speed steel material strength and hardness are relatively low, and cutting parts may occur plastic deformation. When hard alloy works directly under high temperature and three-dimensional compression stress, it will also produce plastic flow on the surface, and even cause plastic deformation of the cutting edge or tooltip, leading to surface collapse. Collapse generally occurs in the large cutting and processing of hard materials. The elastic modulus of TiC-based cemented carbide is smaller than that of WC-based cemented carbide, so the former has accelerated plastic deformation resistance. PCD and PCBN have almost no plastic deformation.

 

Hot cracking of CNC machining tool

 

When CNC machining tools bear the alternate mechanical load and thermal load, due to repeated thermal expansion and cold contraction, cutting parts surface will inevitably produce alternate thermal stress, leading to CNC machining tool cracking, thus scrap. For example, when a hard alloy tool is used for high-speed milling, the cutter teeth are constantly subjected to periodic impacts and alternating thermal stresses, resulting in vertical cracks on the front cutter surface. Some CNC machining tools although there is no obvious alternating load and stress, also because of surface and inner temperature inconsistency and thermal stress. In addition, NC machining tool materials have unavoidable defects, so the blade can also crack. Tools can sometimes continue to work for some time after a crack has formed.


 

CNC machining tool back wear

 

The tool grain wear of CNC machining tools usually occurs on the back tool surface, which is caused by mechanical alternating stress. If the hardness of the tool material is not high, the cutting speed in the process is too high and the feed is too small, it will lead to damage to the surface of the CNC machining tool, so as to reduce the size. Machining surface accuracy, increase the friction resistance of large cutting. Therefore, should choose as far as possible high wear resistance of the tool material, reduce the cutting speed, increase the feed, and increase the tool back Angle, in order to avoid or reduce the possibility of tool surface wear after NC machining tool generation.

 

This article mainly introduces the causes of CNC machining tool damage and solutions, through the article can understand that CNC machining tool damage is the cutting tool due to conventional operation and gradual failure. Every tool experiences slight wear and tear at some point in its life cycle. However, the damaged condition of the cutting tool will have a bad effect on the workpiece, so avoiding the damage of the cutting tool is very important to achieve the best performance of the end mill.



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